Continuing from: The MOST POWERFUL WOMEN RULERS in History – PART 1
- 5. Maria Theresa of Austria – (May 13, 1717 – November 29, 1780) Was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dynasty, succeeding her father – Emperor Karl VI. Because she was the only heir of the emperor, Maria faced many grievances and disputes.
That same year after coming to power in 1740, Fredik II started the war for the Austrian Empire. He refused to acknowledge Maria Teresa as true heir to the throne, even though he had promised her father that he would support the succession of the crown, so there was a conflict in which she opposed dignified by buying Hungarian soldiers and weapons. That war, which in history is known as the War of the Austrian Succession, ending in 1748 with the signing of a peace agreement.
Her reforms to strengthen the state were successful. She brought many economic and political changes in the country, increased military, raise taxes in order to have a permanent income for the government and military.
Her reign will be remembered for the founding of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Literature in Brussels, donating funds for improvement of the medical faculty of the University of Vienna, and the liberation of the death penalty and the introduction of compulsory education.
- 6. Elisabeth I
Elizabeth I was incredible ruler and maybe the first woman that has been officially crowned Queen of England with all the honors. Her reign is known as the golden era in English history, and the in time of her ruling, England stated known poets as Shakespeare, Marlowe and Spenser, carrying the Renaissance in England.
Because she was never married, she is still known as the Queen-virgin. She was the daughter of King Henry VIII. Elizabeth ruled from 1558 until her death in 1603 and she is the last ruler of the Tudor dynasty, marking her reign as the era of Elizabeth of England.
- Elizabeth was a true intellectual and very smart ruler. Sympathizing the Protestant movement has turned England into Protestant nation, but also she has respected the other religions. Her reign for years has been hampered by her cousin Mary – Queen of Scots, who fought for the English throne because she felt like the real heir to the throne. She prepared a plot against Elizabeth for years, and because Elizabeth was forced to remain in England for long part of her life. In the end she opposes, so Mary is beheaded in 1587. During her reign, England became the greatest world power.
- 7. Catherine II
Also known as Catherine the Great, was a Russian ruler. Longest staying on the throne of the Russian Empire, she fought successful conquering wars of expanding her empire to the west and she has joined the island Crimea to Russia. As a result, Russia during her reign was the greatest power in Europe. Her reign lasted from 1762 until her death in 1796, that ruled 34 years.
- Catherine was born in present-day Poland and after successfully mastered the Russian language, migrated to Russia becoming the wife of the Russian throne heir Peter III. When she saw how arrogant and immature her husband was, in collusion with imperial guard she made a plot against Peter III, taking his place at the head of the Russian empire.
- 8. Queen Victoria
English queen who certainly deserves great respect and admiration. Reigned 64 years, from 1837 to 1901, and during her reign as England expanded it into a truly global force. Therefore it is said that in the Victorian era, England was so great that the sun never set over it.
- Her reign has seen major changes in British institutions and government, but also in the daily life of the citizens. She led a modest life unlike the other rulers, and she was much respected by the people. After the death of her husband, Prince Albert, she never remarried, continued to live a modest life, always wearing black clothes. In 1868, she published a book based on her own diary, illustrated with many photos of her family.
The famous British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, during the ’80s, struggled to re-establish the Victorian values of life that the Queen Victoria preached during her reign. One of the them was the value of discipline and respect in the family.